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What do you suppose is the direction of the vector represented by:

(4, 0)T


The vector is parallel to the X axis of the coordinate frame we are using. Often this is horizontal, pointing right. (Or, you might have said that the vector is oriented at 0 degrees.)

Vectors Aligned with X-Y Axes

Vector at 45 degrees

A 2D vector that is aligned with a coordinate axis, as with (4, 0)T, has an orientation that is easy to see. It is 0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees, or 270 degrees.

The orientation of a vector is usually expressed as an angle with the positive x axis of a coordinate frame. There are two ways of doing this:


What is the direction of a ?