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v · u = |v| |u| cos θ = |u| |v| cos θ = u · v


The dot product is commutative The order of operands does not make any difference.

u · v   =   v · u.

Another property is:

0 · 0   =   0

This means that the dot product of the zero vector with itself results in the scalar value of zero. There are two different kinds of zero in the equation. The operands of the dot product are two vectors, and the output is a scalar (a real number).


What is   a (u · v)   where "a" is a scalar?